Still thinking about chromatic polynomials. Recall: if Γ is a graph, the chromatic polynomial χ_Γ(n) is the number of ways to color the vertices of Γ in which no two adjacent vertices have the same color.

**Fact:** χ_Γ(-1) is the number of acyclic orientations of Γ.

This is a theorem of Richard Stanley from 1973.

Here’s a sketch of a weird proof of that fact, which I think can be made into an actual weird proof. Let U be the hyperplane complement

Note that |U(F_q)| is just the number of colorings of Γ by elements of F_q; that is, χ_Γ(q). More importantly, the Poincare polynomial of the manifold U(C) is (up to powers of -1 and t) χ_Γ(-1/t). The reason |U(F_q)| is χ_Γ(q) is that Frobenius acts on H^i(U) by q^{-i}. (OK, I switched to etale cohomology but for hyperplane complements everything’s fine.) So what should χ_Γ(-1) mean? Well, the Lefschetz trace formula suggests you look for an operator on U(C) which acts as -1 on the H^1, whence as (-1)^i on the H^i. Hey, I can think of one — complex conjugation! Call that c.

Then Lefchetz says χ_Γ(-1) should be the number of fixed points of c, perhaps counted with some index. But careful — the fixed point locus of c isn’t a bunch of isolated points, as it would be for a generic diffeo; it’s U(R), which has positive dimension! But that’s OK; in cases like this we can just replace cardinality with Euler characteristic. (This is the part that’s folkloric and sketchy.) So

χ(U(R)) = χ_Γ(-1)

at least up to sign. But U(R) is just a real hyperplane complement, which means all its components are contractible, so the Euler characteristic is just the number of components. What’s more: if (x_1, … x_|Γ|) is a point of U(R), then x_i – x_j is nonzero for every edge ij; that means that the sign of x_i – x_j is constant on every component of U(R). That sign is equivalent to an orientation of the edge! And this orientation is obviously acyclic. Furthermore, every acyclic orientation can evidently be realized by a point of U(R).

To sum up: acyclic orientations are in bijection with the connected components of U(R), which by Lefschetz are χ_Γ(-1) in number.

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